Table of Contents

  1. List of Figures and Tables
  2. Preface to the Third Edition
  3. Introduction
  1. 1 Classical Democracy : Athens
    1. Political ideals and aims
    2. Institutional features
    3. The exclusivity of ancient democracy
    4. The critics
    5. In sum: model I
  2. 2 Republicanism : Liberty, Self-Government and the ActiveCitizen
    1. The eclipse and re-emergence of homo politicus
    2. The reforging of republicanism
    3. Republicanism, elective government and popular sovereignty
    4. From civic life to civic glory
    5. The republic and the general will
    6. In sum: model IIa
    7. In sum: model IIb
    8. The public and the private
  3. 3 The Development of Liberal Democracy: For and Against the State
    1. Power and sovereignty
    2. Citizenship and the constitutional state
    3. Separation of powers
    4. The problem of factions
    5. Accountability and markets
    6. In sum: model IIIa
    7. Liberty and the development of democracy
    8. The dangers of despotic power and an overgrown state
    9. Representative government
    10. The subordination of women
    11. Competing conceptions of the ‘ends of government’
    12. In sum: model IIIb
  4. 4 Direct Democracy and the End of Politics
    1. Class and class conflict
    2. History as evolution and the development of capitalism
    3. Two theories of the state
    4. The end of politics
    5. Competing conceptions of Marxism
    6. In sum: model IV
  1. 5 Competitive Elitism and the Technocratic Vision
    1. Classes, power and conflict
    2. Bureaucracy, parliaments and nation-states
    3. Competitive elitist democracy
    4. Liberal democracy at the crossroads
    5. The last vestige of democracy?
    6. Democracy, capitalism and socialism
    7. ‘Classical’ v. modern democracy
    8. A technocratic vision
    9. In sum: model V
  2. 6 Pluralism, Corporate Capitalism and the State
    1. Group politics, governments and power
    2. Politics, consensus and the distribution of power
    3. Democracy, corporate capitalism and the state
    4. Accumulation, legitimation and the restricted sphere of the political
    5. In sum: model VI
    6. The changing form of representative institutions
  3. 7 From Postwar Stability to Political Crisis:
    1. The Polarization of Political Ideals
    2. A legitimate democratic order or a repressive regime?
    3. Overloaded state or legitimation crisis?
    4. Crisis theories: an assessment
    5. Law, liberty and democracy
    6. In sum: model VII
    7. Participation, liberty and democracy
    8. In sum: model VIII
  4. 8 Democracy after Soviet Communism
    1. The historical backdrop
    2. The triumph of economic and political liberalism?
    3. The renewed necessity of Marxism and democracy from ‘below’?
  5. 9 Deliberative Democracy and the Defence of the Public Realm
    1. Reason and participation
    2. The limits of democratic theory
    3. The aims of deliberative democracy
    4. What is sound public reasoning? Impartialism and its critics
    5. Institutions of deliberative democracy
    6. Value pluralism and democracy
    7. In sum: model IX
  1. 10 Democratic Autonomy
    1. The appeal of democracy
    2. The principle of autonomy
    3. Enacting the principle
    4. The heritage of classic and twentieth-century democratic theory
    5. Democracy: a double-sided process
    6. Democratic autonomy: compatibilities and incompatibilities
    7. In sum: model Xa
  2. 11 Democracy, the Nation-State and the Global System
    1. Democratic legitimacy and borders
    2. Regional and global flows: old and new
    3. Sovereignty, autonomy and disjunctures
    4. Rethinking democracy for a more global age: the cosmopolitan model
    5. In sum: model Xb
    6. A utopian project?
  1. Acknowledgements
  2. Bibliography
  3. Index


“Models is the kind of established classic which both demands and merits revision every decade or so. The new chapter on deliberative democracy for the third edition, concise and perceptive as always, maintains Held's reputation at the forefront of democratic thinkers today.”
David Beetham, University of Leeds

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